অসমীয়া   বাংলা   बोड़ो   डोगरी   ગુજરાતી   ಕನ್ನಡ   كأشُر   कोंकणी   संथाली   মনিপুরি   नेपाली   ଓରିୟା   ਪੰਜਾਬੀ   संस्कृत   தமிழ்  తెలుగు   ردو

Loquat Crop Stage-Wise IPM

ManagementActivity

Pre-sowing / Pre-Planting

Common cultural practices:

  • Timely planting should be done.
  • Orchard sanitation
  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Take proper soil sample and get soil test report prior to planting.
Nutrients
  • Nutrient should be applied on the basis of soil test report and recommendation for the particular agro-climatic zone.
  • Pits of 0.75 cubic meter size are dug in summer at a distance of 6 to 8 m and left exposed to sunlight.
  • Pits are filled with a mixture of 30 cm top soil, 40-50 kg farmyard manure and 200 g Single Super Phosphate.
Weeds
  • Deep ploughing during summer
  • Ploughing the orchard before planting to destroy existing weeds in the orchard
Soil borne pathogens, resting stages of insects

Cultural control:

  • Grow resistant/tolerant varieties.
  • Deep summer ploughing of orchards to control resting stages of insect pests.
  • Avoid excessive watering and provide proper drainage in the orchard.

Planting stage

Common cultural practices:

  • Use healthy, certified and weed-free seeds for raising nursery.
Nutrients
  • Planting is done in mid-August or mid-February in pits already filled with farm yard manure and top soil.
  • Add mycorrhiza culture @ 50 grams per pit or a basket of soil taken from old Loquat orchard to ensure mycorrhiza association with seedling roots.
  • Nutrient should be provided as per soil test recommendations.
Weeds
  • Use weed free seedlings for planting.
  • Remove weeds from the pits before planting.
  • Intercropping with short duration cover crops should be done to suppress weeds between rows.

Vegetative state

Common cultural practices:

  • Destroy crop debris
  • Provide irrigation at critical stages of the plant
  • Avoid water logging
  • Avoid water stress condition.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Collection and destruction of eggs and early stage larvae
  • Handpick the older larvae during early stages
  • The infested plant parts collect and destroyed

Common biological practices:

  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients
  • Loquat needs heavy fertilization for luxuriant growth and bumper fruiting. A fertilizer dose of 750g N, 300g P and 750g K per year to a young plant should be given upto 3 years age.
  • Full dose of FYM, Phosphorous and Potash and half dose of N should be applied. Nitrogen should be applied in the month of February.
  • The nutrients should be applied in 20-30 cm deep and 30 cm wide trench along the drip line of the tree.
Weeds
  • Mulching tree basin in April with plastic or straw mulch helps control weeds and conserves soil moisture.
  • Green manuring and leguminous vegetables crops like bean, pea, red clover and white clover should be grown to control weeds between vine rows as well as to improve soil texture and fertility.
  • Whenever intercrop not grown between the rows of trees, slashing and mowing of weed may be adopted.
Fruit fly

Cultural control:

  • Hoeing of the tree basins should be done to expose the pupae to their natural enemies.
  • Collect the infected fruits and dump in deep pits.
Aphid

Cultural control:

  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts
  • Maintain adequate aeration by proper training and pruning
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-10 traps /acre
Pomegranate butterfly

Cultural control:

  • The fruits if screened with polythene or paper bags may escape infestation.
  • Removal and destruction of all the affected fruits.
  • Mechanical control:
  • Remove weeds of compositeae family
  • Detect and remove early infestation by periodically looking for drying branches.
Thrips

Cultural control:

  • Sprinkle water over the seedlings to check the multiplication of thrips
Scale insects

Cultural control:

  • Collect and destroy damaged leaves
  • Apply well rotten sheep manure @ 4 t/ acre in two splits or poultry manure in 2 splits
  • Control ants and dust which can give the scale a competitive advantage.
Chafer beetle

Mechanical control:

  • Collection and destruction of adults beetle by handpicking in day time
  • Setup light trap in the night
Shoot/ fruit blight and bark canker

Mechanical control:

  • The canker should be removed and the dead bark decorticated along with 2 cm of healthy bark.
  • The dead-wood and prunings should be destroyed.
  • The wounds should be covered with a disinfectant solution
Crown rot

Cultural control:

  • Remove the severely infested trees and use them as fire wood.
  • Remove the diseased bark during the dry season by extending the cut an inch beyond the diseased zone on all sides.
  • Control of the disease is reliant on good water management.
  • Loquat should be planted in well-draining soils where water does not pool after rain or irrigation;
  • Plants should be allowed to dry out between irrigations
Root rot/ white rot

Cultural control:

  • Do not allow irrigation water to come in contact with the stem.

Mechanical control:

  • Digout decayed roots and cut them completely right from the collar region
  • Treat the cut end of the roots immediately with disinfectant solution
  • Avoid deep hoeing and interculture to obviate injuries to the roots, through which fungus attacks.
Collar rot
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Wither tip

Cultural control:

  • Avoid planting susceptible varieties.

Mechanical control:

  • Prune dead twigs before flowering, and regularly remove infected fruit and dead leaves.
Leaf spot

Cultural control:

  • Remove and dispose of spotted leaves
  • Do not water overhead as this spreads the fungus spores and favors infection.
  • Reduce humidity around plants by providing adequate space between them and by pruning lower branches.
  • Removing groundcovers beneath shrubs and mulching or maintaining bare soil instead.
Fire Blight
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Scab

Cultural control:

  • Clean cultivation
  • Apply urea (2 Kg/acre at pre-leaf fall stage spring and dolomitic lime (2.5ton/acre) in autumn over fallen leaves to accelerate decomposition.

Mechanical control:

  • Collection and destruction of fallen leaves and pruned materials in winter to prevent the sexual cycle.
  • Collect and burn the infected plant debris.
  • Follow proper trimming and pruning of twigs and branches followed by burning

Reproductive/maturity stage

Nutrients
  • In the bearing orchards, apply 50 kg FYM per plant every year along with other fertilizers.
  • A fertilizer dose of 1kg N, 0.5 kg P and 0.5 kg K per plant per year should be given.
  • Fertilizers should be applied in basins away from the tree trunk on drip line.
  • Apply recommended micronutrients, if deficiency symptoms are observed.
  • Micronutrient deficiency should be corrected by foliar spray of particular micronutrient.
Weeds
  • Remove weeds around the plants.
  • Use straw or plastic Mulch to avoid weed growth and to maintain soil moisture for longer period.
  • Remove left over weeds from the orchard to avoid further spread of weed seeds.
Fruit fly

Cultural control:

  • Prior to harvest (30-40 days) collect and disposed off infested and fallen fruits to prevent further multiplication and carry-over of population.
  • Ploughing of orchard during November-December to expose pupae to sun’s heat which kills them.
  • If infestation is heavy, bait splash on the trunk only, once or twice at weekly interval is recommended. To prepare bait splash, mix 100 gm of jaggery in one litre of water and add 1 ml of deltamethrin by using an old broom.
  • Managing fruit flies also reduces anthracnose disease and prevents late fruit fall.

Mechanical control:

  • Male annihilation technique:
  • Set up fly trap using methyl eugenol. Prepare methyl eugenol 1 ml/l of water + 1 ml of malathion solution.
  • Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in one ha between 6 and 8 am.
  • Collect and destroy the adult flies.

Physical control:

  • Hot water treatment of fruit at 48 ± 1 ºC for 4-5min.

Biological control:

  • Use methyl eugenal pheromone trap@4/acre
Bark eating caterpillar

Cultural control:

  • Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree
  • Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts
Shoot/ fruit blight and bark canker,Crown rot, Root rot/white rot, Collar rot,Wither tip, Leaf spot, Fire Blight, Scab
  • Same as in vegetative stage

Source : NIPHM; Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage



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