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Persimmon Crop Stage-Wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre-planting

Common cultural practices:

  • Destroy the alternate host plants
  • Sow the ecological engineering plants
  • Sow sorghum/maize/pearl millet in 4 rows all around the main crop as guard/barrier crop
  • Deep summer ploughing of orchard reduces the incidence of weed, mealy bug and soil-borne pathogens.
  • Seed nuts must be collected during peak period of harvest and sun dried for two to three days.
  • Medium size nuts (7-9 gm) may be selected to get vigorously growing seedlings.
  • Seed nuts should be soaked overnight in water before sowing.
  • Sow the soaked nuts in the polythene bags filled with potting mixture.
  • Seedlings will be ready for grafting 40-50 days after germination.
  • Arrange proper shade, irrigation & drainage.
  • Rogue out diseased seedling.
  • Arrange locally made rat traps.
Nutrients
  • Nutrient should be applied on the basis of soil test report and recommendation for the particular agro-climatic zone.
  • Prepare land by ploughing and harrowing.
  • Pits of 1m x 1m x 1m size are dug at a distance of 6 m on contour lines or in square system of planting.
Weeds
  • Persimmon orchards are maintained under permanent sod with a clean basin management.
  • The basins are kept clean by hand-weeding.
  • Ploughing the orchard before planting to destroy existing weeds in the field.

Nursery sowing to Planting

  • Persimmon is grafted on the seedling rootstock before buds breaks. Prior to sowing, seeds are stratified at temperature (1-5oC) for 90 days and sown in the nursery in March-April. After one year, seedlings attain graftable size. It can also be propagated by shield budding in the month of August.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Remove new sprouts emerging from root stock at frequent intervals.
  • Shift the grafts frequently from one place to another to prevent them from striking roots into the ground.
Nutrients
  • Planting is done in December January in pits already filled with farm yard manure.
  • Add mycorrhiza culture @ 50 grams per pit or a basket of  soil taken from old Persimmon orchard to ensure mycorrhiza association with seedling roots.
Weeds
  • In the nursery, remove the weeds by hand from time to time
  • Use weed free seedlings for planting.
  • Remove weeds from the pits before planting.
  • Grow the recommended intercrops/ cover crop between the rows of Persimmon
Pests, soil-borne pathogens
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices (See page no. 22)

Cultural control:

  • Well decomposed farm yard manure coupled with Trichoderma viride/ harzianum should be used.
  • Nursery beds should be raised..
  • Nursery beds should be fumigated with 4% formalin

Mechanical control:

  • Destruction of termetorium along with queen

Vegetative state

Common cultural practices:

  • Collect and destroy crop debris
  • Collect and destroy disease infected and insect damaged plant parts
  • Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
  • Remove weed plants
  • Provide timely irrigation, organic manure, fertilizer as per the recommended dose, drainage, weeding, mulching, interculture etc.

Common mechanical practices:

  • Handpick the older larvae during early stages of plant
  • Collect and destroy plant parts infested with insect pest and diseases
  • Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
  • Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
  • Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring fruit fly activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
  • Erecting of bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc
  • Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm

Common biological practices:

  • Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
  • Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients
  • The amount of manure and fertilizer to be applied is influenced by the age or size of tree, soil types, fertility,   cultural practices and anticipated fruit yield.
  • During vegetative growth, apply 4 t FYM per acre per year in December.
  • The manure should be applied in 20-30 cm deep and 30cms wide trench along the drip line of the tree.
Weeds
  • Mulching tree basin in April with 10-15 cm thick hay helps control weeds and conserves soil moisture.
  • Green manuring crops like beans, pea, red clover and white clover-can also are grown in tree basins to improve soil texture and fertility.
  • Use slashing and mowing between the rows to control the weeds, if cover crops are not grown
Mealybug
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Cultural control:

  • Removal of weeds and alternate host plants like hibiscus, okra, custard apple, guava etc in and nearby vineyards throughout the year.
  • Deep ploughing in summer or raking of soil in vineyards helps to destroy its nymphal stages and minimizing the incidence.

Mechanical control:

  • Remove and destroy the loose bark.

Biological control:

  • Release exotic predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10 beetles/vine
Scales
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Cultural control:

  • Prune heavily infested plant parts to open the tree canopy and destroy’ them immediately.
  • Prune infested parts (branches and twigs) preferably during summer.
  • These should be placed in a pit constructed on one corner of the orchard. Allow branches and twigs to dry until the parasites escape.
  • Burn the remaining debris.
  • Removal of attendant ants may permit natural enemies to control the insect.
  • monitor and when the eggs and crawlers (immatures) are present
Twig girdlers & borers
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Cultural control:

  • During September and October the adult female deposits her eggs by piercing the bark below the buds on terminal twigs. After oviposition the female girdles the stem which may later fall to the ground.
  • Infested twigs should be gathered and destroyed.
  • Select and apply horticultural spray oils according to label directions. Crawler sprays should be applied from late May through early June. Repeat applications may be needed. Be sure to follow label directions. Prune and destroy heavily infested twigs and branches.
Persimmon psylla
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices (See page no. 22)

Cultural control:

  • Galls with nymphs should be collected and destroyed.

Biological control

  • Conserve the predators like black ladybird beetle, purplish pirate bug, brown lacewing, tiny parasitic wasp
Leaf rollers
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Biological control
  • Conserve the biocontrol agents such as tachinid flies and ichneumonid wasps, which parasitize the larvae.
Mites
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Cultural control:

  • Proper irrigation scheduling reduces the water stress and also increases the humidity thereby reducing the mite population

Biological control:

  • Several predatory insects and spiders feed on mites but the most efficient natural predators of mite pests are predatory mites.
Crown gall
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
  • For resistant/tolerant varieties consult nearest SAUs/ICAR Institutes/KVKs

Cultural control:

  • Trees in fruit and nut orchards can be maintained over long periods if the trees became infected at maturity. Diseased trees will bear crop, but with age the trees will become unthrifty and suffer dehydration as their root system becomes progressively infected. The removal of infected trees and vines is costly in loss in time and in money.
Root rot
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices )
  • For resistant/tolerant varieties consult nearest SAUs/ICAR Institutes/KVKs

Cultural control:

  • To cure slightly affected plants, dig out the soil from around the roots and allow them to dry. Prune infected roots down to healthy tissue and replant the persimmon in a new area. Water sparsely.
Cercospora leaf spot
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
  • For resistant/tolerant varieties consult nearest SAUs/ICAR Institutes/KVKs

Cultural control:

  • Remove the infected leaves from the plant
  • Crop rotation plays a key component in reducing Cercospora leaf spot inoculum level from over-wintering in plant debris and in soils.
Circular leaf spot
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
  • For resistant/tolerant varieties consult nearest SAUs/ICAR Institutes/KVKs

Cultural control:

  • Rake up and destroy fallen leaves before the first snowfall to eliminate locations where pathogens can survive to re-infect the plant the following growing season.
  • Do not overcrowd plants — use size at maturity as a spacing guide when planting.
  • Prune trees or shrubs to increase light penetration and improve air circulation throughout the canopy.

Biological control:

  • Wet conditions promote disease, so avoid or redirect lawn and landscape sprinklers that wet the lower canopy of the tree.
Bitter rot or anthracnose
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
  • For resistant/tolerant varieties consult nearest SAUs/ICAR Institutes/KVKs

Cultural control:

  • Taking cuttings from symptom-free plants will greatly reduce the risk of disease spread in container stock.
  • Collecting fallen disease leaves and removing blighted blooms are also suggested.
Leaf spots
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
  • For resistant/tolerant varieties consult nearest SAUs/ICAR Institutes/KVKs

Cultural control:

  • Because the fruit crown covers the blossom tissues preharvest sprays are generally ineffective. Good orchard management practices, such as field sanitation (removal of old fruit and dead branches), may reduce the incidence of the disease. Infected, healthy-appearing fruit may be dropped to the ground by gently shaking the tree at the time of harvest.
  • Avoid water stress and overwatering that may result in fruit cracking.

Reproductive state

Mealybug
  • Same as in vegetative state
Scales
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Cultural control:

  • Prune heavily infested plant parts to open the tree canopy and destroy’ them immediately.
  • Prune infested parts (branches and twigs) preferably during summer.
  • These should be placed in a pit constructed on one corner of the orchard. Allow branches and twigs to dry until the parasites escape.
  • Burn the remaining debris.
  • Removal of attendant ants may permit natural enemies to control the insect.
Persimmon psylla
  • Same as in vegetative state
Leaf rollers
  • Same as in vegetative state
Mites
  • Same as in vegetative state

Maturation state

Nutrients
  • In the bearing orchards, apply 8 tonnes of FYM per acre in alternate years.
  • Apply 30 kg N, 25 kg P2O5 and 25 kg K2O per acre per year.
  • Half dose of N is applied in spring before flowering and the other half one month later.
  • Fertilizers are applied in tree basin about 30 cm away from the tree trunk.
  • The band application of nitrogenous fertilizers should be preferred over broadcasting.
  • Apply recommended micronutrients, if symptoms are observed.
Weeds
  • Remove weeds around the plants.
  • Use straw or plastic Mulch to avoid weed growth and to maintain soil moisture for longer period.
  • Mulching tree basins with 10-15 cm thick dry grass also checks weed growth. During the initial 2-4 years, peas, beans and cowpea enrich the soil and give economic returns also.
Fruit fly
  • Follow common cultural, mechanical and biological practices (See page no. 22)
  • Cultural control:
  • Prior to harvest (30-40 days) collect and disposed off infested and fallen fruits to prevent further multiplication and carry-over of population.
  • Ploughing of orchard during November-December to expose pupae to sun’s heat which kills them.
  • If infestation is heavy, bait splash on the trunk only, once or twice at weekly interval is recommended. To prepare bait splash, mix 100 gm of jaggery in one litre of water and add 1 ml of deltamethrin by using an old broom.
  • Managing fruit flies also reduces anthracnose disease and prevents late fruit fall.

Mechanical control:

  • Male annihilation technique: Set up fly trap using methyl eugenol. Prepare methyl eugenol 1 ml/l of water + 1 ml of malathion solution.
  • Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them at 25 different places in one ha between 6 and 8 am.
  • Collect and destroy the adult flies.
  • Use methyl eugenal pheromone trap@4/acre

Physical control:

  • Hot water treatment of fruit at 48 ± 1ºC for 4-5min.
Mealybug
  • Same as in vegetative state
Scales
  • Same as in vegetative state
Twig girdlers & borers
  • Same as in vegetative state
Persimmon psylla
  • Same as in vegetative state

Post-harvest

Post-harvest fruit rot
  • Treat the fruits after harvest with 2 mM salicylic acid
Twig girdlers borers
  • Same as in vegetative state

Source:NIPHM, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine Storage



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